Heat Absorption: Urban areas with extensive impervious surfaces, such as asphalt and concrete, absorb and retain heat, leading to higher temperatures compared to surrounding rural areas.
Reduced Vegetation: Urbanization often results in the removal of natural vegetation, reducing the cooling effect of trees and green spaces. This lack of vegetation contributes to elevated temperatures.
Buildings and Infrastructure: The construction of buildings and infrastructure can create heat-trapping surfaces, exacerbating the urban heat island effect. Tall structures may also obstruct natural ventilation.
Energy Consumption: Increased energy use in urban areas, particularly for air conditioning and heating, releases additional heat, contributing to higher temperatures locally.
Air Pollution: Urban areas often experience higher levels of air pollution, which can trap heat and exacerbate the urban heat island effect. Polluted air can also impact respiratory health.
Impacts on Human Health: Elevated temperatures in urban heat islands can pose health risks, including heat-related illnesses. Vulnerable populations may be particularly affected.
Water Bodies: The modification or loss of natural water bodies in urban areas reduces the cooling effect of evaporation, further intensifying heat island effects.
Mitigation Strategies: Urban planning and design strategies, such as incorporating green spaces, promoting reflective surfaces, and implementing sustainable building practices, can help mitigate the urban heat island effect.