Water Storage Tissues: Many desert plants, such as cacti, have specialized tissues that can store water, allowing them to survive extended periods of drought.
Reduced Leaf Surface: Desert plants often have small or modified leaves, or even no leaves at all, to minimize water loss through transpiration.
Deep Root Systems: Plants in arid environments often develop deep root systems to tap into groundwater sources and acquire water from lower soil layers.
Waxy Surfaces: The surfaces of leaves and stems may be coated with a waxy layer to reduce water loss through evaporation and to reflect sunlight, preventing overheating.
CAM Photosynthesis: Some desert plants, like succulents and certain orchids, use Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis, a process that allows them to open their stomata at night, minimizing water loss during the day.
Leaf Orientation: Some desert plants orient their leaves vertically or have a rosette shape to reduce exposure to direct sunlight, minimizing heat absorption and evaporation.
Hydrophobic Root Hairs: The root hairs of desert plants may have a hydrophobic coating to repel water, preventing the loss of water through the roots in dry soils.
Cyanobacteria Symbiosis: Certain desert plants form symbiotic relationships with cyanobacteria, which help fix nitrogen and improve the plant's nutrient availability in nutrient-poor soils.