Hadley Cell: Warm air rises near the equator, moves towards the poles at high altitudes, descends in the subtropics, and returns to the equator at the surface, driving trade winds.
Ferrel Cell: Sinking cool air in mid-latitudes, moving poleward in the upper atmosphere, rising in the subtropics, and returning towards the mid-latitudes at the surface, contributing to westerlies.
Polar Cell: Cold, dense air sinks at high latitudes, flows towards lower latitudes near the surface, rises in the polar front, and returns poleward in the upper atmosphere, creating polar easterlies.
Trade Winds: Persistent easterly winds near the equator, influenced by the Hadley Cell's circulation and crucial for maritime navigation.
Westerlies: Prevailing winds in mid-latitudes, flowing from the west to the east, associated with the Ferrel Cell's circulation and influencing weather patterns.
Polar Easterlies: Cold winds near the poles blowing from the east, part of the Polar Cell's circulation and interacting with the westerlies.
Coriolis Effect: Deflection of moving air due to the Earth's rotation, influencing the direction of atmospheric circulation.
Jet Streams: High-altitude, fast-flowing air currents within the westerlies, playing a key role in steering weather systems and influencing surface weather conditions.